PhD Programme in Language Pedagogy
ELTE School of English and American Studies
1088 Budapest, Rákóczi út 5. phone:(36-1) 485 52 00 extension 4424 , email: email@example.com
Click on the course titles below to go to the course outlines.
2 Elective Courses - Here the courses are presented in a thematic grouping while below, the course outlines are presented alphabetically.
Culture and Intercultural communication:
Educational management and policy
Research methods and presentation of research:
Teaching, learning and teacher education:
Edit H. Kontra
The course provides an overview of the most salient issues in second language acquisition and foreign language learning. The course schedule is divided into three parts: Part One deals with Second Language Acquisition/Foreign Language Learning, Part Two focuses on the characteristics of Learner Language, and Part Three is centred around the Language Learner. The participants will get acquainted with the history and development of SLA theories, the acquisition process, the role of instruction, and the social and pragmatic aspects of acquiring a second or foreign language. The discussion on learner language includes interlanguage, language transfer, bilingualism, error analysis and some aspects of assessment. In the final part of the course various aspects of the language learner are examined, such as individual differences, the social and cultural context of learning, and learner autonomy. The materials selected for the course combine theoretical overviews, basic, most often quoted studies and publications on recent research in the field. The course requires a substantial amount of reading and thorough preparation from class to class. The written assignment entails a literature review on a negotiated topic.
As a foundation course to complement “Focus on the language learner”, this course places the teacher on the centre stage. The course begins by arguing that Language Pedagogy is an inter-disciplinary area of study. Contrary to traditional views, the emphasis is laid on its pedagogical rather than its linguistic roots and allegiance (hence the programme is called “Language Pedagogy” and not “Applied Linguistics”). “Focus on the teacher” goes on to analyse classroom operations, including curriculum design, needs analysis, language teaching objectives and programme evaluation. After demonstrating the main tenets and the development of communicative language teaching, it examines the “post-method condition”, characterised by its principled refusal to subscribe to any one methodology.
However, the teaching operation does not begin and end in the classroom; the second part of the course reveals its complex nature. The teaching process is motivated by a host of institutional and societal givens, on the one hand, and the teacher's cognitive setup, on the other. Internal characteristics, such as the teacher's ability to reflect and develop, as well as her/his adaptability to changing circumstances seem to play a crucial role in teacher effectiveness.
The aim of the course is to familiarise students with the basic principles, methods and techniques of research in language pedagogy. The course also provides introduction to basic statistical procedures used in the field of second language acquisition. In the first few lessons students get acquainted with basic notions of research (types of research, formulating research questions, etc.) and with basic research orientations in the field of language pedagogy (e.g. ethnomethodology, discourse analysis, action research). We then go on to discuss various research methods such as questionnaires, interviews, experiments, etc. The second half of the course introduces basic statistical analyses (descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, correlations, Chi-square) to the students, who also learn how to use the statistical programme SPSS at an elementary level. Students are required to do the readings and short assignments during the course, and at the end of the course there is a test which involves answering some theoretical questions related to the readings and solving tasks with the help of the SPSS programme.
These courses are taught by several of the tutors of the programme.
Research seminars should be taken up in the order designated by their numbers (Research Seminar 1-4). Obtaining credit for one research seminar is a prerequisite for taking up the next one (i.e., for instance, one should obtain a grade for Research Seminar 1 to be able to sign up for Research Seminar 2).
· To provide training in research thinking, the application of research design, and the critical analysis of research studies
· To create group cohesion and sense of belonging to a broader community of researchers
· To widen students' horizon and make them aware of broader and other issues than their own research interest
Modules and their aims:
Module 1: Reading research papers in applied linguistics and language pedagogy
The main aim of this module is to help students read research papers critically in terms of rationale, methodology and procedures, the nature of the data and the interpretation of the results. It also aims to help students understand published reports of research, and to foster “research consciousness”: awareness of the need for, and possibilities of, research.
Module 2: Issues in undertaking research in the social sciences
This module – heavily building upon the contents of the Research Design and Statistics course – aims to raise some practical issues about the organisation and management of research and gives a chance to discuss these issues. The focus in this module this semester will be on formulating research questions and designing research. Questions of feasibility, reliability and ethical issues will also be discussed.
Module 3: Writing for the academic community
The aim of this module is to familiarise students with the most important conventions and criteria of academic writing. The module focuses on issues of documentation, writing abstracts, literature reviews, empirical and theoretical research papers, and critical reviews. Special emphasis is laid on informing students about Hungarian and English language journals in the field of applied linguistics and language pedagogy where they can both read and publish papers.
Module 4: Joint seminar with 2nd-year students -- Listening to and evaluating presentations
This module aims to involve 1st-year students in listening to and evaluating formal presentations on research. It enables students to familiarise with presentation techniques and helps them develop the skill of critically listening to presentations to be able to raise sensible questions and make useful comments related to the issues under discussions.
· Attendance and participation at the seminar
· Home reading
· Home assignments
· A seminar paper: the seminar paper is a critical review of a paper of your own choice.
· Type of paper: critical review
· Description of task: Write a critical analysis of a research article of your own choice in terms of its aim(s), research design, and most important outcomes. The paper may be selected from any English language journal. The review should focus on both the positive and the negative aspects of the paper and relate to both its content and form. The criticism is expected to be based on the review criteria proposed by
- Seliger, H. W. & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 80-81), and
- Brown, J. D. (1988). Understanding research in second language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 5.
· Length of the paper: between 2,000-2,500 words.
· Papers are double-marked by the tutors of Research Seminars 1 and 3.
· Assessment is based on the following two main criteria:
(1a) Identification and summary of research topic/content/method
(1b) Depth of analysis of merits and weaknesses of study regarding its
Abstract (vs. contents of article: Is it a correct summary?)
Statement of purpose
Review of literature
Selection of participants/materials
Analysis (results and discussion, interpretation of findings)
(2a) Structure of review (presence and adequacy of the following parts):
1. Brief summary of article (including the following items: topic, purpose, participants/materials, procedures, principal findings).
2. Detailed discussion of merits and weaknesses of the main parts of the study.
3. Overall evaluation of article.
(2c) Language use (appropriate academic style, accuracy)
Blum-Kulka, S. & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act
realisation patterns. Applied Linguistics, 5, 196-213.
Borg, S. (1998). Teachers' pedagogical systems and grammar teaching: A qualitative study. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 9-39.
Brown, J. D. (1988). Understanding research in second language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. Chapter 5
Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 55-85.
Petrić, B. (2000). The effect of listening instruction on the development of listening skills of university students of English. Novelty, 7/3, 15-29.
Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled ESL students do as they write: a classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly, 19/2, 229-258.
Schneider, M. & Connor, U. (1990). Analyzing topical structure in ESL essays. Not all topics are equal. SSLA, 12, 411-427.
Seliger, H. W. & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 80-81.
Spencer Oatey, H. (1993). Conceptions of social relations and pragmatics research. Journal of Pragmatics, 20, 27-47.
Spolsky, B. (1969). Attitudinal aspects of second language learning. Language Learning, 19, 271-285.
The main objective of this course is to acquaint students with the concept of validation and its basic procedures.
Modules and their aims:
Module 1: Resources and Sources: The “Literature”
The aims of this module are
· to identify sources of information relevant to language pedagogy
· to use such sources efficiently
Module 2: Instrumentation and Validity
The aims of this module are:
· to go more deeply into the problems and solutions in designing and validating research instruments
· to allow specialisation in one research technique/ instrument through experience and through accessing the literature
· to meet the expressed need for special interest groups, and student-directed learning
· to gather and analyse real data together
Module 3: Group presentations
The aims of this module are:
· for students to begin (or continue) the process of developing their research ideas
· for students to get feedback on their work
· for students to reflect on the research process in action and practice
· for students to develop presentation skills
Students will be expected to write up a version of their oral presentation from Module Three and to submit a preliminary research plan for Research Seminar 3. The research paper on the validation study should be 12-18 pages long double-spaced. The preliminary research plan should be 3-5 pages long. The validation study is read and marked by the course tutor and another teacher, who is a specialist in the field of the study. The preliminary research plan is read by the course teacher and the teacher of Research Seminar 3.
Assessment is based on the group presentation and the two written papers.
Alderson, C. J. & Banerjee, J. (1996) How might impact study instruments be validated? Unpublished manuscript commissioned by UCLES.
Block, D. (1998). Exploring the interpretation of questionnaire items. System, 26, 403-425.
Brown, J. D. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 33-70, 71-92, 171-184.
Csölle, A., Kontra, E., & Kormos, J. (2001). Mire használja az egyetemista nyelvtanuló az idegen nyelvet? A kérdőívkészítés tanulságai. Nyelvi Mérce I/1-2. 66-71.
Petrić, B., & Czárl, B. (2003). Validation of a writing strategy questionnaire. System, 31, 187-215.
Sakui, K, & Gaies, S. J. (1999). Investigating Japanese learners’ beliefs about language learning. System, 27, 473-492.
The general aim of this research seminar is to assist students in thinking about their dissertation research project and in preparing and writing up their formal research proposals, which is the written assignment for this course.
Modules and their aims:
Module 1: Identifying the elements of research proposals; reading and analysing proposals
Participants will read and discuss a number of formal research proposals, and they will examine comments on these made by course tutors and reviewers. Particular emphasis will be put on the feasibility of the proposal as well as the clarity of its presentation and the co-ordination of the research questions and the methods chosen to investigate these.
Module 2: Designing the steps of the doctoral research
Participants will start to turn their research ideas into a feasible research design. The methods and the process of the project will have to be matched to the research focus. Everybody’s research plan will be discussed and, if necessary, modifications will be suggested.
Module 3: Reading the literature on the participants’ research topics and related methods
Participants will be asked to read and report on articles or other relevant texts of approximately 50 pages in the area of their proposed research every week. These readings aim to deepen the participants’ knowledge of their research area and to refine the methods to be used in their research project.
Module 4: Joint seminar with 1st year students – Giving presentations
This module aims to involve the participants in listening to and evaluating first year students’ formal presentations on their research. Participants are expected to help the presenters by asking questions and making useful comments related to the issues discussed.
In this seminar participants will work towards designing their doctoral research and writing up the research proposal, which is the main assignment of the course. After reading and analysing research plans everyone will design their research and present it to the others. Feedback will be provided by the group and the tutor to help the presenter re-think and refine their research plan. Further considerations to improve the research plan will come from the participants’ readings, which they will have to report on weekly. At the end of the term participants will present the outline of their research proposal. It will also be an important task this term for the participants to find a supervisor for their dissertation.
Attendance and the completion of all assignments are compulsory. Participants will have to give an outline of their planned research proposal in the form of a twenty-minute conference type presentation accompanied by a handout. This presentation must detail and justify the focus and the steps of the presenter’s doctoral research. The presentations will be followed by a group discussion and feedback from the tutor.
The major assignment is to write the research proposal. The research proposal is a summary of the contents of the planned dissertation; it allows the dissertation proposal committee to examine the contents of the intended dissertation in order to give feedback and then to pass formal judgement on the research topic and the intended approach.
The research proposal should
- state the problem or area being researched and why it is of interest
- present the research question(s)
- present a brief overview of the relevant literature
- present the implications for the research from the literature review, and design either some procedure for preliminary data analysis based on the literature, or a design for a pilot study
- (where already conducted) report on the pilot study or a preliminary analysis
- draw conclusions for the main study or the full analysis on the basis of the experience of the pilot work
- present the detailed design of the research/ subsequent analysis
- present a detailed schedule of work to be done, with milestones and a timetable
- indicate what the likely content of the final dissertation will look like
It has to
- be related to language pedagogy
- be connected to and drawing upon current theory or issues of a theoretical nature
- be written in a suitable academic style
- be feasible in terms of scale, time-schedule, instrumentation, access to data sources, and
time for analysis and writing up
- show evidence of having been piloted and revised where appropriate
- show evidence of awareness of the need for believable, valid results in whatever research
paradigm is used
- show evidence of having received supervision, and of having heeded advice.
The proposal should be between 8,000 and 14,000 words in length (depending on the type of study proposed), and should be prepared in consultation with the supervisor. (Experience shows that proposals tend to be 12-14,000 words long.).
An application for research ethics permission (available on the langped.elte.hu site) must be attached to the proposal. Since the proposal is to be handed in electronically, please use single or 1.5 spaced pages.
Please note that the smallest instance of plagiarism will automatically lead to immediate suspension, a fail mark and disciplinary measures.
The research proposal must be submitted electronically (in doc or docx format) to the tutor of Research Seminar 3 and must be endorsed by the supervisor. The submission deadline is in the middle of January - the exact date is agreed upon in the seminar.
The fully developed proposal will be read by the Dissertation Proposal committee. This committee is appointed by the Programme Director to provide feedback on and to take a formal decision about your dissertation proposal. It consists of the Dissertation Proposal Committee, consisting of the tutor of Research Seminar 3, the Director of the Programme and the Director of Studies. If there is an overlap in these positions or if one of these tutors is the supervisor, a suitably qualified member of the teaching staff of the Programme is called in to act as third reader. The members of the committee give written feedback on the proposal and accept the proposal or return it for re-writing. The supervisor is also invited to give feedback. The committee can take up to a month to assess the proposal. The process therefore continues during RS4, when the decision is announced. If a paper is to be re-written, it has to be submitted again by the end of the second month of Research Seminar 4 if the author wishes to earn credit for RS4 in the same term. On approval, the participant can go on to carry out their research. Research seminars 3 & 4 form a unit in the sense that they both lead directly to the participants’ dissertation research. (Research seminar 4 will offer the opportunity to carry out a part of the planned research either as a pilot or a fully-fledged version.)
To earn a credit for RS3, participants have to:
- prepare for and participate in classes,
- prepare and present the detailed outline of their dissertation proposal during the term in the form of a fifteen to twenty-minute conference type presentation accompanied by a handout. This presentation must detail and justify the focus and the steps of the presenter’s doctoral research. The presentations will be followed by a group discussion and feedback from the tutor.
- submit the detailed outline of their dissertation proposal in writing on the day of their oral presentation.
- submit their fully developed research proposal by mid-January as specified below. (Because of the lengthy assessment process of the proposals, the mark earned for the proposal will count towards the mark for RS4.)
Blaikie, N. (2010). Designing social research – The logic of anticipation. (2nded.) Cambridge: Polity
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design – Qualitative, quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches
(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hopkins, C. & Antes, R. (1990). Educational research. 3rd ed. Itasca, ILL: Peacock Publishers.
Research proposals from our programme with the authors’permission:
Csépes Ildikó, Dóczi Brigitta, Elekes Katalin, Godó Ágnes, Esther Gutierrez Eugenio, Lázár Ildikó, Juliana Llanes, Menyhárt Adrienn, Bojana Petrić, Szabó Péter, Szatzker Orsolya, Szerencsi Katalin
Research proposals from the University of California at Berkley with the authors’permission:
Meg Gebhard, Julie Kerekes, Wan Shun Eva Lam, Margaret Perrow
Other readings on content and methodology will be tailored to the participants’ needs as their project unfolds.
· to provide training in research thinking, the application of research design, and the critical analysis of research studies
· to give students the opportunity to conduct, present and write up research, in preparation for the dissertation proper
· to provide the opportunity to deal with the practicalities of research
· to provide feedback on the students' progress in preparing for their dissertation proposal
Modules and their aims:
Module 1: Identifying research aims, methods and expected problems of a research project
Participants will design a pilot study, which is to help them to try out research approaches and methods they intend to use later for their doctoral research project. Issues that are likely to arise are: Focusing the research topic, establishing research questions, choosing and co-ordinating methods, developing a database, finding appropriate literature, etc.
Module 2: Reading literature on research approaches and methods
Research methods and the various stages of research will be discussed on the basis of the readings. Most of the readings will be selected based on the participants’ research interest.
Module 3: Conducting and analysing a pilot study
The participants will conduct a pilot study and report on difficulties. Group discussions will try to solve these or suggest modifications to the plan.
Module 4: Joint seminar with 1st year students – Listening to and evaluating presentations
This module aims to involve the participants in listening to and evaluating first year students’ formal presentations on their research. Participants are expected to help the presenters by asking questions and making useful comments related to the presentations.
In the course of the seminar, participants will be designing and conducting a (small-scale pilot) research project to see a project unfold. Participants will be working alone on their projects but everyone will also serve as a consultant to somebody else in the group to provide a less involved peer’s views on the projects. Readings during the course will mostly depend on the participants’ research interests and needs. Participants will be required to give an account of their ongoing research work and readings concerning research methods. The focus of the research to be carried out is to experience the practicalities of research and to find solutions to emerging problems in the process. It is advised that course participants plan and conduct research that can serve as a pilot or final study for their dissertation research. In order to deal with the practicalities of the project, it is important to focus on applying appropriate research methods in a careful and well justified manner.
Getting a seminar mark for the term’s work is subject to having an accepted research proposal. Lacking this, no credit can be awarded. The mark for the seminar will reflect the quality of the research proposal and the research work during the term.
Brown, J. D. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (selected chapters)
Brown, J. D., Rodgers, T. S.(2002). Doing second language research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (selected chapters)
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design – Qualitative, quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches
(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Delamont, S, Atkinson, P and Parry, O (1999). Supervising the PhD. A guide to success. The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. (Chapter 5)
Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (1994, 2000). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Holló D., & Németh N. (2009). Ten years on: Applying the lessons of a research project in
thinking about the practicalities of research design. WoPaLP 3. (Working Papers in
Language Pedagogy) http://langped.elte.hu/Wopalpindex.htm
Maykut, P. & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research. A philosophic and practical guide. London: The Falmer Press. (selected chapters)
McDonough, J. & McDonough, S. (1997). Research methods for English language teachers. London: Arnold. (selected chapters)
Pollard, A (1985). Opportunities and difficulties of a teacher-ethnographer: A personal account. In: Burgess, RG (Ed.), Field methods in the study of education. London: The Falmer Press.
and articles relevant to the participants’ research interest.
The course aims to introduce methods and tools used in Corpus Linguistics. The ultimate aim is to enable participants to pursue research of their own employing state-of-the art language technology. In this sense, this will not only be a "How to?" but a "How do I?" course. The course will be held in four blocked sessions with opportunity for hands-on practice. Students will be expected to work on projects of their own interest. No previous skills are assumed apart from general computer literacy and the readiness to follow a pretty steep learning curve. So it is not necessarily for the faint hearted but it may put your future work on a solid footing. The course will cover the following areas.
1. Introduction. Brief overview of the history, key issues in the design and annotation of corpora.
A review of available corpora. Corpus annotation: standards of text representation (TEI, CES).
2. Some basic language technology: regular expressions, XML technology.
3. Corpus handling tools: CLaRK system, The Corpus WorkBench.
4. Project work.
The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the most frequently used statistical procedures in second language acquisition research. The course is meant to help students to be able to carry out the quantitative analysis of the data they might collect in future studies and for their dissertation. Explanations of the procedures are given in an easily accessible manner, and each statistical method is illustrated with a number of examples. Students will do some basic readings about the procedures, next they will be explained the tests in class, which will be followed by a number of practice tasks. Students can also bring their own data to work on. The course covers most non-parametric statistical tests, partial correlations, simple and multiple regression, multiple and repeated analysis of variance, factor analysis and reliability analysis. Assessment is done in the form of an exam, but students who have available data can also write a paper in which they demonstrate the use of the procedures learnt in class.
This course aims to investigate the extent to which research in applied linguistics has impacted materials development in the past thirty years. By subjecting ELT coursebooks, old and new, to close scrutiny, we shall explore issues of relevance and the match (or mismatch) between theory and practice.
While most teachers are deeply sceptical about the feasibility of teacher appraisal as a concept, we all know that students will "size up" a teacher's weak points in no time at all. Yet, even if we can agree that some teachers are better (or worse) than others – at least in certain aspects, in certain situations or to certain people –, there are a lot of exciting questions left hanging in the air. What makes a "good" teacher? Is your "good" teacher the same as my "good" teacher? Does the key lie in the teacher's personality or what s/he does, how s/he does it or all of these? Is "beauty" in the eye of the beholder or somewhere else? Is there anything more tangible than mere intuition? Can we dismiss our scepticism as irrational?
This course aims to rationalise our gut feelings and explore the different aspects of teacher appraisal from the point of view of the various stakeholders, teaching contexts and the different facets of a teacher's performance. It looks into the key dilemmas underlying the scepticism about appraisal: the teacher effectiveness debate, the teacher development debate and the appraisal debate proper, which comprises issues such as the controversy over the purposes, contextual factors, methodology, criteria, procedures, techniques of data collection and involvement in the appraisal process. Last but not least, after all these important theoretical considerations, the course will focus on the language teacher. This will give us a chance to explore areas such as the specific questions of effectiveness and teacher development in the case of language teaching and to investigate the criteria, the actual tools (checklists, questionnaires and forms), the techniques and procedures (assessment of student performance, classroom observation, appraisal interviews) of language teacher appraisal. With all of us involved in designing certain aspects of a possible scheme, we might even come up with the outlines of a workable system for appraising Hungarian primary and/or secondary school language teachers.
This course is intended to provide insights into various aspects of vocabulary knowledge, acquisition and teaching, and to give impetus for independent research in the following areas:
1. The mental lexicon and the bilingual mental lexicon
2. The role of formulaic language in lexical acquisition
3. First language and second language lexical acquisition
4. Cross-linguistic influences in second language lexical acquisition
5. The role of vocabulary knowledge in L2 reading and the role of reading in
vocabulary acquisition; incidental learning vs. teaching of vocabulary
6. Vocabulary in LSP teaching; problems of terminology and subtechnical vocabulary
7. Lexical problems in translation.
The course presupposes some knowledge of current issues in semantics, second language acquisition and language testing. Accordingly, the list of readings does not include general introductions to the above areas. The main focus is on issues specifically related to the problems of vocabulary knowledge, acquisition and teaching.
This course aims to familiarize participants with the theoretical background, the variety of methods and tools and the researchable aspects of classroom assessment from traditional to alternative forms and tools as well as research results in these fields. We will read and discuss research results on the perceived role and current practices of assessment in language teaching. Participants will get guidance in selecting and working on a research topic according to their interests within the field of classroom assessment and related areas. The final assignment will be a paper reviewing the literature discussed or a study describing the participants’ empirical research carried out during the semester.
The course gives an introduction into the intellectual currents that have led to the development of cultural studies and cultural discourse analysis. Cultural discourse analysis can be applied to the study of texts in the broader sense of cultural phenomena as a system of signs that can be read and interpreted according to conventional and non-conventional logico-analytical tools as well as by inter- and cross-textual intervention by readers in order to reveal, reconstruct or create meaningful experience. It can be applied to the study of issues in traditional disciplines and cultural forms for the deeper understanding and reconstruction of lived experience represented and perpetuated by cultural signs, as well as to inter- and cross-cultural issues. It can be instrumental in the classroom of teaching foreign languages both as a means of analysing existing classroom materials in view of students’ needs and as a means of constructing projects for learning and teaching inter-cultural communication.
After an intensive phase of background reading of the basic texts of cultural discourse analysis, participants are encouraged to engage with individual or group projects that explore either further theoretical aspects of understanding cultural discourses or apply the tool of cultural discourse analysis to problem solving or constructing experimental projects for the classroom.
The primary aim of this introductory course to Discourse Analysis (DA) is to familiarise students with the most prevailing theories and practices of research in the field. The topics covered in the course involve a summary of the basic concepts and main issues in DA, a brief history of DA, the analysis of texts and the study of textual features (the components of the ‘science’ of text, larger patterns in text, text typologies, genres, text cohesion and coherence, etc.), interaction and conversation analysis (e.g., conversational structure, conversation strategies, speech acts), discourse intonation, institutional discourse and critical DA, and the relationship between DA and language teaching. In addition, the course covers the discussion of possible research methodological problems related to research in DA (choice of data, means of data collection, methods of analysis, principal focuses of research, etc.). Students are required to do home reading and attend classes on a regular basis, give a short presentation on a particular topic of their choice, and write an essay on one of the topics discussed in the course.
The course has a dual focus: to familiarize participants with the fundamentals of educational policy research methodology through the discussion of current issues in education and to examine the Hungarian educational policy scene with special regard to language education. It is the intention of this course to bring together policy research and practice.
Major areas of study for the course include the following:
- basic terminology and methodology of educational policy
- interpreting European data on language education
- the political influence of CEF
- teachers: training, compensation, professionalization;
- recent changes in the system of Hungarian secondary and higher education and their effect on language education
The readings will include samples of theoretical and practical policy analyses. As an assignment, participants will be asked to present a case study, a small scale policy analysis of a problem connected to their own teaching environment.
The spread of English and its emerging/existing new varieties is one of the most widely discussed issues in applied linguistics nowadays.
Participants will look at world Englishes and investigate how the English language has changed and is changing as a result of the contribution of millions of speakers who constantly alter and mould it in order to suit their different communicative needs and purposes. The pedagogic implications, including the question of ownership and who should provide the norms (native or non-native speakers) will also be discussed.
In addition, the course will explore what makes a language ‘global’, and the political, economic and cultural factors affecting the rise of English. Issues of language, power and identity will be discussed, and the Hungarian context will also be examined. There will be a wealth of sample texts (both audio and written) for analysis.
This course is meant to explore the ways in which interlanguage, the foreign language produced by language learners in any language use context, can be put to good use in language education. Learners create their own interlanguage, e.g. Hunglish, which is there for the researcher to learn from and use it as a source for their work. Participants will have a chance to understand interlanguage more deeply as a consistent system on its own, will collect and analyse samples of learner language, identify their level (intermediate, advanced etc.) and will also explore how a teacher might use the information as a resource for teaching. They will also learn about and edit (moderate samples for) an internet-based bank of student errors and how the bank may be further developed. Requirements include the reading of literature, active participation in class, regular tasks for homework such as the collection of interlanguage samples, etc. At the end of the course, students will submit what they have done for homework in the form of a portfolio. Assessment will be made on the basis of an analytical set of criteria.
For decades the listening skill was the Cinderella of ELT in Hungary. It was the skill which was tested at times (for example at the state language exam) but very rarely if ever really taught. Today, however, with the assistance of the 'hidden curriculum' of the new Matura exams, things have begun to change, and we can say that no teacher with any self esteem can afford to neglect the teaching of listening any more. Obviously, there is a lot to make up for...
This course aims to give participants a comprehensive overview of what a teacher should know about the listening skill. First we will take a closer look at the theoretical background to listening investigating issues such as the nature of the listening skill in general, and the different sub-skills of listening in particular. Then we will go into the classroom and focus on the teaching of listening, focusing on the general principles, extensive and intensive listening, the different task types and some possible methodological models for practising listening. We will finish off this part of the course with an analysis of the commercially available listening materials.
The second part of the course will deal with the testing of listening comprehension, first focusing on issues such as test construct, content validity and test specifications, and then going on to questions like the different tasks, item writing, and test and exam design. We will even have a short introduction to the technical aspects of task and test production, for example the procedures for recording and editing materials. At the end of the course we will go back to the teaching of listening again and we will take a closer look at ways of preparing students for the listening component of different exams. The various issues discussed during the course will also offer the participants an opportunity to identify areas for further research.
The aim of this course is for participants to arrive at a better understanding of the dynamics of facilitating learning groups. We will be exploring this area with a wide-angle approach, looking at group dynamics, individual learning styles, patterns of group interaction, types of groupwork tasks, small group and whole class discussions, roles of a discussion leader, facilitation skills, and types of discussion questions. In addition to building knowledge, the course also aims to raise awareness and develop skills of group facilitation. In order to do this, participants will be asked to reflect on their past and on-going experiences both in the role of group members and group leaders.
This course is open for all students currently doing their doctoral studies in the social sciences. It is based on the assumption that many young teachers and researchers are poor lecturers. While preparing for their presentation, they tend to focus on content, overlooking the fact that formal criteria are equally important. The course aims to develop the participants' presentation skills. By analysing video-recorded lectures, we attempt to observe features which make these lectures successful. The course is structured around justifications for lecturing mode, stages of planning and preparation, the organisation of lectures, as well as preconditions for and elements of good delivery.
Day and Gastel (2006) say that ”[g]ood scientific writing is not a matter of life and death; it is much more serious than that” (p. ix). This course intends to aid PhD students in mastering the skills necessary for getting their work published. The main topics to be covered include identifying what academic writing is, the characteristics of research papers, preparing a manuscript for submission, the publication process, ethical issues, journals in the field of language pedagogy and applied linguistics, and the presentation of research. During the course of the seminar participants will be expected to present and write up part of their PhD research and prepare it for publication.
Edit H. Kontra; Brózik-Piniel Katalin
Aims and objectives: Participants of this course are introduced to the complexity of individual differences (IDs) and get first hand experience in investigating them. They explore various aspects of IDs, such as age, aptitude, beliefs, motivation, learning styles and strategies, and personality. After gaining some understanding of previous research, the students familiarize themselves with research methods suitable for investigating IDs, and design and conduct original research into IDs. During the course, each participant is responsible for reading a cross section of the literature relevant to their chosen topic and for giving an in-class oral report on it. The second half of the semester is spent on designing and conducting a small-scale research project into IDs and reporting its results orally in class. Participants write up the whole research project as the final course assignment.
List of topics:
1. Areas of individual differences
2. Learner beliefs about language learning
3. Learning Strategies
4. Learning Styles
5. The influence of age, sex and culture on language learning
7. Research methods, research design
This introductory course aims to familiarise students with the core theoretical strands, the versatile research agenda and the methodology of the rapidly evolving field of sociolinguistics. Besides the insights given by analytical frameworks such as interactional sociolinguistics, the variationist paradigm, communication accommodation theory, audience design, acts of identity, we are going to discuss the practical implications of some recent trends which could be relevant to language (teaching) professionals in their daily practices in various institutional and business settings.
Topics to be covered include: language variation and change in present-day English; problematisation of gender, social class, age and ethnicity; language contacts, multilingualism and the role of English in cross-cultural communication; individual agency and strategies in social and linguistic practices; units of analysis: speech community, discourse community, social network, community of practice, on-line community; language and power; language in the media; prestige and standard; language planning; applications (business, computer-mediated communication, forensic).
A current approach to understanding the role of individual differences in language learning involves investigating the dynamic interrelationship of these variables rather than merely looking at them in isolation. The aim of the course is for students to become acquainted with this approach, namely the dynamic systems theory (DST) and its relevance in applied linguistics and to enable students to conduct research on individual variables in this vein. The course will involve reading both theoretical and empirical articles on DST and on the diversity and interconnectedness of individual differences in language learning. We will particularly focus on language learning aptitude, motivation, language learning beliefs, language anxiety, learner autonomy, self-efficacy, willingness to communicate. Students will be required to read academic articles on prevailing theoretical issues and empirical research in the field. Furthermore, students will have the opportunity to conduct a small scale empirical investigation from a DST perspective on individual differences. Finally, course participants will be asked to present their findings to the group and write up their results in form of a term paper. Assessment will be based on course participation, completion of reading assignments, and the research project.
This course is meant to be an introduction to Item Response Theory (IRT). In an initial phase the reasons for analysing test performance are discussed, in addition to the notions of language competence and performance, the notion of facets of performance, measurement error, the centrality of validity. An effort is made to help participants understand how language tests work (or fail to work). In much of the course, however, learning is achieved through “replaying” specific measurement scenarios, focussing on what techniques are available and how they may be used. The course covers both the two-facet measurement model, typically used for the testing of receptive skills and linguistic competences, and the many-faceted model, typically used to analyse tests of productive skills. Assessment in the course is based on course work in the sessions and the quality of individual assignments.
This course aims to familiarize participants with the theoretical background and the researchable aspects of the development of intercultural competence through education. We will read and discuss research results on the perceived role and current practice of developing and assessing intercultural competence especially as regards language teaching and language teacher education. Participants will get guidance in selecting and working on a research topic according to their interests within the field of intercultural competence development and related areas such as education in diversity for inclusive schools, and education for the prevention of discrimination and violence. The final assignment will be a paper describing the participants’ research carried out during the semester.
The aim of this course is to familiarize students with research concerning language learners with special needs and to work out the classroom-related implications of those research results. Students will be asked to review articles on different groups with special needs as well as to discuss the most relevant language learning theories. Throughout the course emphasis will be placed on classroom-related issues. Students will get a chance to try their hands at carrying out a research project. Students will be asked to give a presentation on their project and write up their results in a journal paper.
After clarifying the twin concept of language policy and planning, the first part of the course is concerned with curriculum development. Initiatives aimed at standardising foreign-language education in Europe are contrasted with the National Core Curriculum and subsidiary documents produced in Hungary and other countries. In the second part of the course, steps of programme design are analysed, starting with needs analysis and the setting of objectives, through choice of methods, to programme evaluation. In addition, three major trends in language teaching, usually labelled as communicative, humanistic and task-based, are examined. The course ends with participants either giving a critical analysis of their respective institutional language curriculum/syllabus, or assessing their own institutional foreign-language programmes.
This course is meant to be an introduction to the methodology of validating language tests. It is designed to include five successive phases. In phases 1 and 2, participants will first be given an overview of basic concepts and the present state of the art, followed by the treatment of the necessary requisites for successful validation. In phase 3, the emphasis will be on a selection of available techniques and the requirements of good validation (research) designs. In this phase course participants will start thinking about their own validation studies in their work contexts (or contexts that they have access to) so that in phase 4 they can branch out in pairs or groups (of three) to run their own analyses. This most important phase will consist of trying out both quantitative and qualitative approaches to validation, using – wherever possible – real test data. The course tutor will be offering extra consultation sessions to make sure individual studies are reportable by the time phase 5 (presentation of results in class plenary, critical reflection, suggestions for improvement, discussion) begins. Course participants will be evaluated on the basis of the design of their validation study and the professional quality of its write-up. The report will be submitted after the end of the course.
This course discusses various aspects of linguistic imperialism and critical pedagogy. After making a distinction between politics and policy in language teaching, the course falls into three parts. Part 1 examines questions relating to English as an international language and the threat English poses for speakers of other languages. In Part 2, issues concerning the ownership of English are addressed, including text ownership, plagiarism and the plight of the non-native researcher. Part 3 focuses on the native/non-native speaker division, with special reference to its implications for the foreign language classroom. Throughout the course, most of the examples are drawn from the Hungarian experience.
The course aims to provide an introduction to this fast developing field of linguistics. Apart from various definitions and key pragmatic concepts, participants will explore the relationship between language and context, and familiarize themselves with the most influential theories (Speech Act Theory, Grice’s Co-operative Principle and Relevance Theory). They will also be given an overview of different strands within pragmatics. Theoretical study will be combined with practical application and participants will be encouraged to take part in the analysis of a wide range of textual data. The question of how different theories have filtered through to language pedagogy and the practice of English language teaching will also be investigated.
The aim of this course is to give in-depth treatment to various topics of psycholinguistics. Besides familiarizing students with the theoretical aspects of this field, the course also attempts to acquaint them with the main research methods and tools applied. Major topics to be discussed include various aspects of language acquisition, language loss, language production and comprehension. During the discussions, special emphasis will be placed on L2 and FL besides L1. Students will be assigned a theoretical reading on each topic, and besides discussing these in class, they will also be required to give a critical presentation on one empirical article. The major assignment for the course is a paper on a small-scale psycholinguistic study carried out by the participant.
Edit H. Kontra
This course is recommended to be taken in the 2nd semester. The aim of this seminar is to provide further training in research thinking with special emphasis on naturalistic inquiries. The course should get the participants closer to defining the research topic, research focus, and method of inquiry for their future dissertation.
- To give an overview of the basic features and philosophical underpinnings of qualitative studies;
- To introduce a number of research strategies and methods of data collection and analysis;
- To assist the participants in drafting the proposal for their dissertation and help them design their research.
Target audience: This course is designed with the beginner researcher in mind who, having completed the core course on “Research design and statistics” (RDS) and Research Seminar (RS) 1, would like to know more about the alternatives to the positivist approach to social science, and whose views of reality make it easier for them to work within the framework of naturalistic inquiries. The course content will build on the material of the RDS course and on RS1 and can be taken parallel to RS2.
After the change of regime, foreign-language education has made impressive progress in Hungary and a number of innovative ideas have taken root. However, in the midst of frantic activity, little room has been left for taking stock of the achievements and subjecting them to thorough analysis. This course aims to explore areas worthy of further research.
The topics to be discussed during the course include private language schools, dual-language schools, the bonanza of teaching materials, the Russian Retraining Programme, the Fast-Track Programme, foreign languages in the National Core Curriculum, the examination reform, the World - Language Programme, the Year of Intensive Language Learning, Bologna and teacher education, Hungarian foreign-language specialists as export commodities.
My course is based on a review I co-authored with Marianne Nikolov, due to be published in the October issue of the Cambridge journal Language Teaching. This review gives an overview of research studies in applied linguistics and language education, published in Hungary between 2006 and 2012. While most of studies are primarily focused on empirical research, all of them are concerned with issues rooted in the Hungarian educational context.
The course sets itself two objectives:
· to familiarise course participants with recent research conducted in Hungary, and
· to search for neglected and unexplored areas of research.
Reflection: the buzzword in Teacher Education has been in the centre of both research and training ever since Schön wrote his groundbreaking book: The Reflective Practitioner in 1983. The course sets out to explore the reasons for its lasting impact on teacher education in general and language teacher education in particular. First, different models of teacher training will be identified and described, amongst them the reflective model. Then the theoretical underpinnings of the reflective model will be investigated, i.e. constructivism, social constructivism and the research into teachers’ beliefs. Next, the more practical implications of the model will be scrutinized: contexts that are believed to foster reflection, means that are thought to promote reflection, and the levels of reflection that trainee teachers are supposed to be able to demonstrate. Two further issues emerge then: whether and how levels of reflection can be linked to the stages of teacher development, and whether and how teacher reflection can be measured and evaluated. Though the main aspects of reflective teacher education will be explored primarily through readings on teacher education, each topic will be considered from the viewpoint of language teacher education as well, mainly in the framework of follow-up discussions and the participants research.
The course aims to explore the relevant facets of portfolio use in Teacher Education, with specific emphasis on Language Teacher Education. First, the concept of the portfolio, basic portfolio types (work, showcase and assessment) and the special features of e-portfolios will be discussed in detail. This will inevitably require us to study the theoretical underpinnings of portfolio use, i.e. the learning theory of social constructivism. Then we will explore how portfolios fit among tools of reflection, and among tools of authentic assessment. The latter will require us to clarify how the standards movement and competency-based education helped portfolio use to gain ground. Next, portfolios as tools of assessment, together with evaluation scales, checklists and rubrics will be presented, and the validity and reliability problems tainting portfolio assessment will be explored. Finally, based on several reports from the literature we will try to assess the usefulness or otherwise of portfolios to promote reflection.
Péter Medgyes Péter & Marianne Nikolov
The credit course offers doctoral students (and guest researchers) an opportunity to choose an area for focused research within the framework of “Világ – Nyelv”. We envisage course assignments as short-term outcomes, and publishable papers and doctoral dissertations in the long run. Students will be expected to develop research questions and instruments for participants in different “Világ – Nyelv” projects, pilot these instruments, and continue data collection with validated and finalized instruments.
This course aims at familiarising students with the most prevailing theories and analytical models applied in the analysis written discourse and translation. The course is intended to
1. provide a thorough theoretical background to the analysis of written discourse by reviewing various analytical models which may provide insights into the different aspects of texts,
2. offer hands-on experience in the analysis of texts and translations to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches from both a theoretical and a research methodological perspective,
3. point to the practical/pedagogical implications such analyses may yield in the teaching of writing and translation.
Therefore some of the main topics to be included in the course involve a discussion of the key issues in the study of text, problems related to the study of cohesion and coherence, an overview of the principal advances of English written text analysis (ranging from linguistic to cognitive approaches), a thorough discussion of several research models and their applicability in the analysis of particular text types, contrastive rhetoric, the relationship between discourse studies and translation, approaches to the analysis of translation, assessing writing and translation, etc.
The aim of the course is to provide an introduction to the Swalesian genre analysis approach and to the research methodology characteristic of it. The participants will be introduced to the underlying theory developed for this approach, key concepts, statistical measures, validating procedures, and the tools employed for the analysis of written academic genres. In addition to Swales’ work, we shall focus primarily on the contributions of Brian Paltride, Ken Hyland, Vijay K. Bhatia, and Robert B. Kaplan. Participants will work with non-native student texts available in the M.A. thesis subcorpus of the Hungarian Corpus of Learner English (HuCLE) and will use the CLaRK System, an XML based system for corpora development and analysis, as well as the lexical analysis software called WordSmith Tools to code and analyse data. The course requirements include the completion of all the home readings, formal presentations based on the readings, the analysis of M.A. theses, and a seminar paper on M.A. theses.
The principal aim of this course is to familiarize students with the most prevailing theories and analytical tools in the study of language for specific/occupational purposes. The topics to be covered include
· the multidisciplinary nature of the field,
· the study of English for academic, educational, legal, medical, political and business purposes,
· issues of research within ESP,
· the implications of research for skills development, course and materials design, assessment,
· and/or any other topics of the course participants’ interest.
The course will encourage the design and writing up of a research project that may be published on the long run.
The requirements include (1) a formal presentation based on one of the readings, accompanied by a detailed handout, (2) the analysis of particular discourse types characteristic of the occupational area that the participants are interested/involved in, (3) home reading, (4) a seminar paper based on discourse analysis or a literature review of one of the topics discussed in class.
This course is intended for those who have already taken at least one of our courses investigating the role of culture in language teaching or intercultural communication, and are thinking of carrying out research in this area. The course will help identify relevant research topics and design a research project which can be incorporated in the participants’ dissertation research. Locating the research niche for the project with the help of the literature will be followed by determining the appropriate research methods and processes. The project is to be carried out during the semester, and the participants will be encouraged to write it up to for publication as well.
The aim of this course is to familiarise students with current issues in L2 motivation research. The most important L2 motivation theories will be discussed and classroom-related issues will be explored. In addition, the main research tools and methods used in the field will be dealt with. Subtopics within the major directions of L2 motivation research (socio-psychological, cognitive-situated and process-oriented) will be selected according to students’ interest. Students will be asked to read assigned articles and to give critical presentations on them. Relevant research methods ands tools will be tried out both in class and as a part of students’ assignments.
Andrea Ágnes Reményi
The course will provide an introduction to the basic concepts and current theoretical frameworks of sociolinguistics (the study of language in its social context). It will survey the problems of language variation (language/dialect/speech community, multilingualism, code-choice, language change, attitudes), interactional (talk-in-interaction, language and gender, address, internet), cultural (ethnography of communication, L1 acquisition and literacy) and political aspects (language planning, critical approaches). Attention will be given to both social (from individual to national, global and virtual levels) and linguistic dimensions (from phonology and grammar to conversation and discourse structures). Most areas will be examined with a special emphasis on language education, as language professionals, classroom teachers and local or national policy makers alike, must face the dilemma of respecting diversity in language and, at the same time, advancing common standards. The course will concentrate on English, but a brief mention of Hungarian studies will also be made.
An understanding of sociolinguistic research methods will be supported by the discussion of problems of data collection and analysis. Students will be required to read textbook chapters and articles, give one or two class presentations of assigned readings, participate actively in class discussions, and write a final paper presenting original research in an area of sociolinguistics and language teaching.
Andrea Ágnes Reményi
The course offers an introduction to the theories and practices of studying spoken interaction, a branch of linguistic discourse analysis. We will discuss data collection, transcription and analytic methods, and also related ethical issues. We will examine first and second language interaction, in and out of the classroom, the former from two aspects: both as the medium of the classroom communication and also as an L1/L2 skill to develop and test (pragmatic competence, oracy development, fluency practice, accuracy, etc.). The philosophical question how far spoken interaction describes or also shapes reality will get some attention. Apart from literature reading and participation in classroom discussions, students will expected to collect tape/video recorded data of L1 or L2 classroom or exam interaction and write up their analysis in a paper.
The aim of this course is to acquaint students with a multivariate tool for data analysis, namely structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM is a statistical technique that is, similarly to factor analysis, employed to interpret the relationship among several variables within a single framework. We will be using the AMOS Graphics programme of AMOS 4.0, a state-of-the art, user-friendly statistical software testing graphically specified models in terms of model-data fit. During the course two publications will be used extensively: Amos 4.0 User’s Guide (Arbuckle & Wothke, 1999) and Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS (Byrne, 2001). Students attending the course will have to have a working knowledge of the main aspects of correlation, regression and factor analysis. Students will be given several datasets for study purposes but the use of their own data, collected prior to the course, will be encouraged.
The aim of this course is to familiarize students with the task types used and the performance measures applied in task-based research, and to enable them to design and conduct research in this area. After a brief introduction to the theory of TBLT, the course will focus on the different task types used in task-based research, and the performance measures applied for analysing tasks will also be discussed in detail. Besides reading and discussing the assigned theoretical articles, students will also be required to critically present one of the empirical articles included in the syllable. Moreover, students will be required to design and conduct mini-research on a task-type and write it up in the form of a seminar paper.
This course aims to get participants engaged in a wide range of topics related to the function of culture in learning and teaching a foreign language. We will investigate the nature of culture and cultural awareness and then we will go on to develop and discuss theories for the role of culture in language education. The area of verbal and non-verbal culture will be followed by different applications, such as teacher roles and education, culture and literature through language and testing cultural learning.
The intended routine for classes comprises discussion of set readings, discussion of individual presentations based on readings and presentations of individual projects (these are to be written up in the major assignment).
The course assignment is a publishable quality paper on a project or case-study. This can involve syllabus or materials design and analysis or the planning of a programme where cultural and language instruction are co-ordinated. Another alternative is a paper analysing existing educational policies or theories concerning the teaching of culture and language.
The aim of the course is to provide doctoral students with an overview of the issues related age as a factor contributing to individual differences in SLA. The course explores the critical period hypothesis for first and second language, evidence from neuroscience, cognitive science, connectionist models and early language teaching programmes. It also looks into the implications for bilingual education and foreign language teaching. The course is interesting not only because of its focus but also because most empirical studies are highly controversial from the perspective of research methodology.
The course aims to provide an overview of major theories which have informed language teaching and which may be necessary for drawing up the theoretical background of PhD dissertations. The programme will thus include influential theories such as Speech Acts, Grice’s Co-operative Principle, Genre Theory as well as relevant language learning, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic theories. Participants will read and discuss primary and secondary sources, and will also engage in the clarification of key notions in language study. The overall purpose is to give much needed help in a stimulating and challenging area, and enable participants to find their way in the exciting world of applied linguistic theory.
The first computer-stored collections of student writing were developed in the early nineties. Since then, several European projects have been launched. This course aims to provide an introduction to current theory and practice in corpus linguistics, focusing on learner corpora of written texts. After an overview of the corpus linguistic tradition and of major first- and second-generation L1 corpora, we will probe into issues such as competence vs. performance, corpus design considerations, and representativeness. Sessions will also highlight features of EFL student writing in Hungary, using data from the JPU Corpus. Themes: Corpus, frequency, concordance; Evidence, collocation; The Bank of English; The British National Corpus; The International Corpus of English; The International Corpus of Learner English; The JPU Corpus; Pedagogical corpus annotation; Research workshop; Seeking permission, sampling, text entry; Corpus analysis procedures; Presentation of corpus studies.
Edit H. Kontra
Aims and objectives:
The main aim of this course is to lead participants to the realization that teacher training/education is more than merely passing on tips and tricks an experienced teacher has accumulated in his or her teaching career. In order to achieve this aim, the course will do the following:
- introduce the underlying principles of teacher education to the participants.
- help the participants articulate their own beliefs about teacher education and place them in a
wider educational and cultural context.
- juxtapose, analyze and discuss different approaches to teacher training
- enable the participants to critically analyze teacher training curricula, syllabi and training
- initiate research into a variety of issues in teacher education
List of topics:
1. Theory and practice in teacher education
2. Models of training
3. Issues in teacher development and INSET
4. Course, syllabus and materials design
5. The cultural context of teacher education
6. Research in teacher education
In this course we will explore the dimensions that make cultural encounters, inside and outside foreign language classrooms, intercultural experiences. We will draw on linguistic, sociological, psychological findings as well as our own insights to highlight the processes involved in the perception of and interaction with cultural 'others'. We will look at the role of self‑concept and attitude formation, the schematic representations and affective factors involved and their implications for the development of intercultural competence in foreign language learners.
1. Key aspects of cultural encounters
2. Achieving understanding of self and others?
3. The notion of intercultural competence
4. Main approaches to cultural learning: a critical review
Writing ELT materials can be a very good idea: you can make a name for yourself in the profession outside the walls of your school more easily than in any other way, and, if you get lucky, it may even prove to be a commercially lucrative venture.
There are certain problems with it, though. On the one hand, it is a tiring and time-consuming task, and, on the other hand, it may not be the actual writing of the book that is the most difficult part of the job, but getting it published, and selling the finished product.
The secret of success lies in some theoretical knowledge of ELT methodology in general, and syllabus and materials design in particular, with careful planning and some creativity and resourcefulness on the side.
This course begins with an overview of issues such as the different types of ELT materials, the techniques for evaluating course books, and the principles of syllabus design. Then it goes on to analyse materials design proper, first on a small scale, by focusing on writing supplementary materials to existing course books and then on a larger scale, by looking at the principles and techniques and the actual process of designing thematic publications and course books. Finally, it offers some insight into dealing with publishers and with other important contributors to the publishing process. Issues for further research will also emerge from the discussions.
The aim of this course is to give an introduction to the theoretical background of written discourse analysis and to provide hands-on practice with content-oriented and structure-oriented approaches to text analysis. The course provides an overview of the field by focusing on text as a monological or a dialogical type of discourse, on discourse structures and their component parts ranging from grammatically to functionally defined constituents, on the hierarchical representation of discourse structure, on meaning relations between discourse constituents at different levels, on discourse structure signalling mechanisms, on genres and their analyses, and on text types. The course requirements include the completion of home readings, formal presentations based on the readings, text analyses, a seminar paper on a negotiated topic, and regular attendance.
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